Pollution has no borders. This popular 70's saying from early ecologists is surprisingly still true nowadays despite overwhelming scientific evidence and public awareness of the occurrence of artificial toxic substances in water, food, air, living organisms and the environment. This book presents advanced reviews on pollutant occurrence, transfer, toxicity and remediation. The chapter on school air quality by Dambruoso et al. highlights the overlooked health issue of airborne pollutants in buildings. Children are particularly threatened because they spend 90% of their time indoors, even in summer. The chapter on industrial wastewater pollutants by Dsikowitzky and Schwarzbauer reviews pollutants from textile, petrochemical, paper, tire, chemical and pharmaceutical plants. The authors describe advanced analytical methods and ecotoxicity tests. Industrial pollutants include dioxins and furans that are also reviewed in the chapter by Mudhoo et al. The chapter on fly ash by Gianoncelli et al. presents many techniques to treat fly ash and, in turn, decrease pollutant concentrations. The authors also explain that fly ash can be recycled in agriculture, buildings and geopolymers. The chapter on antifouling paints used for ship protection, by Sousa et al., highlights the occurrence of toxic organotins in human organs such as heart, liver and breast milk. The chapter on surfactants by Rebello et al. focuses on safety concerns for humans and the ecosystems. Remediation techniques and green surfactants are presented. The chapters on toxic metals by Nava-Ruiz and Mendez-Armenta, Abarikwu and Ristic et al. describe sources, monitoring and diseases induced by lead, mercury, cadmium and thallium. The chapter on carcinogenic nitrosamines by Li et al. presents techniques and materials such as zeolites to remediate liquids and smoke containing nitrosamines.
Quadratic programs and affine variational inequalities represent two fundamental, closely-related classes of problems in the t, heories of mathematical programming and variational inequalities, resp- tively. This book develops a unified theory on qualitative aspects of nonconvex quadratic programming and affine variational inequ- ities. The first seven chapters introduce the reader step-by-step to the central issues concerning a quadratic program or an affine variational inequality, such as the solution existence, necessary and sufficient conditions for a point to belong to the solution set, and properties of the solution set. The subsequent two chapters discuss briefly two concrete nlodels (linear fractional vector optimization and the traffic equilibrium problem) whose analysis can benefit a lot from using the results on quadratic programs and affine variational inequalities. There are six chapters devoted to the study of conti- ity and/or differentiability properties of the characteristic maps and functions in quadratic programs and in affine variational inequa- ties where all the components of the problem data are subject to perturbation. Quadratic programs and affine variational inequa- ties under linear perturbations are studied in three other chapters. One special feature of the presentation is that when a certain pr- erty of a characteristic map or function is investigated, we always try first to establish necessary conditions for it to hold, then we go on to study whether the obtained necessary conditions are suf- cient ones. This helps to clarify the structures of the two classes of problems under consideration
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