Pollution has no borders. This popular 70's saying from early ecologists is surprisingly still true nowadays despite overwhelming scientific evidence and public awareness of the occurrence of artificial toxic substances in water, food, air, living organisms and the environment. This book presents advanced reviews on pollutant occurrence, transfer, toxicity and remediation. The chapter on school air quality by Dambruoso et al. highlights the overlooked health issue of airborne pollutants in buildings. Children are particularly threatened because they spend 90% of their time indoors, even in summer. The chapter on industrial wastewater pollutants by Dsikowitzky and Schwarzbauer reviews pollutants from textile, petrochemical, paper, tire, chemical and pharmaceutical plants. The authors describe advanced analytical methods and ecotoxicity tests. Industrial pollutants include dioxins and furans that are also reviewed in the chapter by Mudhoo et al. The chapter on fly ash by Gianoncelli et al. presents many techniques to treat fly ash and, in turn, decrease pollutant concentrations. The authors also explain that fly ash can be recycled in agriculture, buildings and geopolymers. The chapter on antifouling paints used for ship protection, by Sousa et al., highlights the occurrence of toxic organotins in human organs such as heart, liver and breast milk. The chapter on surfactants by Rebello et al. focuses on safety concerns for humans and the ecosystems. Remediation techniques and green surfactants are presented. The chapters on toxic metals by Nava-Ruiz and Mendez-Armenta, Abarikwu and Ristic et al. describe sources, monitoring and diseases induced by lead, mercury, cadmium and thallium. The chapter on carcinogenic nitrosamines by Li et al. presents techniques and materials such as zeolites to remediate liquids and smoke containing nitrosamines.
The purpose of this book is to provide readers with an introduction to the very active field of integer programming and network models. The idea is to cover the main parts of the field without being too detailed or too technical. As a matter of fact, we found it somewhat surprising that most--especially newer---books are strongly algorithmically oriented. In contrast, the main emphasis of this book is on models rather than methods. This focus expresses our view that methods are tools to solve actual problems and not ends in themselves. As such, graduate (and with some omissions, undergraduate) students may find this book helpful in their studies as will practitioners who would like to get acquainted with a field or use this text as a refresher. This premise has resulted in a coverage that omits material that is standard fare in other books, whereas it covers topics that are only infrequently found elsewhere. There are some, yet relatively few, prerequisites for the reader. Most material that is required for the understanding of more than one chapter is presented in one of the four chapters of the introductory part, which reviews the main results in linear programming, the analysis of algorithms, graphs and networks, and dynamic programming, respectively. Readers who are familiar with the issues involved can safely skip that part. The three main parts of the book rely on intuitive reasoning and examples, whenever practical, instead of theorems and proofs.
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