Pollution has no borders. This popular 70's saying from early ecologists is surprisingly still true nowadays despite overwhelming scientific evidence and public awareness of the occurrence of artificial toxic substances in water, food, air, living organisms and the environment. This book presents advanced reviews on pollutant occurrence, transfer, toxicity and remediation. The chapter on school air quality by Dambruoso et al. highlights the overlooked health issue of airborne pollutants in buildings. Children are particularly threatened because they spend 90% of their time indoors, even in summer. The chapter on industrial wastewater pollutants by Dsikowitzky and Schwarzbauer reviews pollutants from textile, petrochemical, paper, tire, chemical and pharmaceutical plants. The authors describe advanced analytical methods and ecotoxicity tests. Industrial pollutants include dioxins and furans that are also reviewed in the chapter by Mudhoo et al. The chapter on fly ash by Gianoncelli et al. presents many techniques to treat fly ash and, in turn, decrease pollutant concentrations. The authors also explain that fly ash can be recycled in agriculture, buildings and geopolymers. The chapter on antifouling paints used for ship protection, by Sousa et al., highlights the occurrence of toxic organotins in human organs such as heart, liver and breast milk. The chapter on surfactants by Rebello et al. focuses on safety concerns for humans and the ecosystems. Remediation techniques and green surfactants are presented. The chapters on toxic metals by Nava-Ruiz and Mendez-Armenta, Abarikwu and Ristic et al. describe sources, monitoring and diseases induced by lead, mercury, cadmium and thallium. The chapter on carcinogenic nitrosamines by Li et al. presents techniques and materials such as zeolites to remediate liquids and smoke containing nitrosamines.
This volume examines the writing of children enrolled in an unusual bilingual program in the Southwest that emphasized writing in the first language until literacy was well established, and which attempted to offer an integrated curriculum. As a result, the volume presents research findings on children's spelling in both Spanish and English, their written code switches, segmentation, beginnings and endings of pieces, quality of the content, the relationship of first and second language writing, the role of the teacher in children's writing, and evidence that refutes common beliefs about writing, bilingualism, and other topics. From a broader perspective, the volume presents three different, yet interwoven stories: changes in children's writing over time; evolution of the theoretical stance used to analyze writing as well as changes in the theory that played an important role in shaping some of what occurred in the children's classrooms; and an unfolding of some of the events in this bilingual program and the relation of these events to children's writing and classroom practice.
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